• Threefold increase in ten years of employment over 65 years of age
After a continuous decline since the early 1980s, after moving to the retirement at 60 years, the employment of over 65 years of age has started to rise again from the mid-2000s. In 2017, around 3% of seniors in this age bracket continued to work, compared to 1.1 % in 2006, i.e. nearly three times more. This situation concerns mainly the younger seniors (6.6% of 65-69 year olds are in employment). The vast majority (70 %) of these older workers in work has their employment with a retirement pension.
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These over the age of 65 who continue to work are most often (41 %) women, of employed who have less education, part-time, generally only and immigrant women. But they are also urban, mainly male, very graduates and skilled (34 %), or small-scale traders in low-qualified (18 %), or older farmers (7 %). France had 13.1 million senior citizens over 65 years of age (or 20% of the population) on 1 January, a number expected to grow to 21.9 million in 2070 (29 %), if the demographic trends continue.• Reduction of 440 € to the average disposable income of the households since 2008
Between 2008 and 2016, the disposable income of households recorded an average decline of 1.2%, or 440 euros, under the combined effect of multiple factors. On the one hand, the fiscal measures and improvements in social benefits have reduced the income of households of 1.4 %, or 510 euros on average. The 5 % of households were winners of 450 euros (via the revaluation of social minima, premium activity, increase certain family benefits). In contrast, 5 % of the wealthiest households have lost 5 640 euros on average (via the increase in contributions and social contributions and increased taxes on income and wealth).
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on the other hand, the effect of the reforms has been accentuated by a decline in the average income of 400 euros because of the demographic developments: the increase in the number of single-parent homes (with one income), and households in retirement. Finally, the negative effects of the rise in unemployment and part-time work, have been broadly offset by the positive effect of the increase in employment of managers and intermediate occupations. These three factors explain an average decrease of disposable income of 930 euros. But at the same time other factors, among which the evolution of income, have impacted the disposable income of households on the rise, and he is the final contracted an average of 440 euros.• virtually no Impact of the reform of 2017 on the reduction of inequalities
The measures taken in 2017, in contrast, have had virtually no impact on inequality, because it measures the increasing offset those reducing them. The level of living of 10% of the most modest increased slightly (+ 0,4 %), thanks to the implementation of the youth Guarantee, an appreciation of the RSA (+ 1,62 %) and the increase of certain family benefits, But they have been penalized by the decline of € 5 per month housing benefit. Decided after the election of Emmanuel Macron, this measure relates to 5,05 million households and reduces their disposable income of 60 euros in a full year.
At the other end of the scale of living standards, the 20 % of the wealthiest have recorded a very small decline in their standard of living (- 0,1 %), mainly due to the increase of the contribution rate for old age. This increase has also affected the household level of life intermediate, but those have benefited from a reduction of tax outstanding by 20 %.